Chandra probes nature of dark matter
Scientists have precisely determined the distribution of dark matter
in a distant galaxy cluster with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These
new measurements serve to narrow the field of candidates that explain
“dark matter,” the invisible and unknown material that comprises most
John Arabadjis and Mark Bautz of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in Cambridge, Mass., and Gordon Garmire of Penn State University in
University Park, announced their results today at the “Two Years of
Science with Chandra” symposium in Washington, D.C. Their observations
enabled them to trace the distribution of dark matter the galaxy cluster
Previous evidence from radio, optical and X-ray observations convinced
astronomers that most of the matter in the universe is in some dark,
as yet undetected, form that makes its presence felt only through gravity.
“The new Chandra observations are providing new clues about the nature
of this mysterious stuff,'' said Bautz.
“When combined with data from the Hubble Space Telescope, we are able
to place restrictions on the cross section, or size, of the dark matter
particles,'' said Arabadjis. “The larger the particles, the more strongly
they interact, and the more they alter the dark matter distribution.”
In galaxy clusters, the amount of dark matter can be inferred by measuring
the pressure in the X-ray emitting hot gas and determining how much
dark matter is required to provide the gravity necessary to keep the
gas from escaping the cluster. In the cluster EMSS 1358+6245, the mass
of the dark matter is found to be about 4 times that of the “normal”
matter (matter not comprised of exotic particles), typical of large
galaxy clusters. The distribution of dark matter holds the key to understanding
The most popular model for dark matter invokes slowly moving particles
called cold dark matter, which interact with “normal” matter only through
gravity. Recent optical observations of galaxies and galaxy clusters
have suggested that dark matter particles may interact more vigorously
than simple cold dark matter. The problem is that galaxies composed
primarily of cold dark matter should have a greater central concentration
of dark matter than the optical data suggest.
One solution has been to introduce self-interacting dark matter, or
SIDM. By comparing the Chandra data with theoretical simulations, scientists
can place strict constraints on the SIDM particles. Chandra observations
show there is no evidence for an excessively spread-out dark matter
distribution at distances larger than 150,000 light years from the cluster’s
center. Inside that distance the dark matter may rather uniformly distributed,
so some collisions between dark matter particles may still be needed.
These results over a range of distances from the cluster center place
the strongest observational limits yet on the dark matter interaction
rate in galaxy cluster cores.
EMSS 1358+6245, about 4 billion light years away in the constellation
Draco, was observed by Chandra for 15.3 hours on Sept. 3-4, 2000 using
the ACIS detector.
The ACIS instrument was developed for NASA by Penn State and MIT. NASA's
Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra
program, and TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, Calif., is the prime contractor
for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls
science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.
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